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It might be a very effective way for computational vision model to utilize the productions of neurophysiology and biology. Retina does astonishing work in the early vision. In this paper, according to anatomic structure, a multi-layer digital retina model is presented to simulate biological retina and it is placed in a physical visual field of a reduced eye to analyze why the retina can be capable of fulfilling all tasks, and further more, to analyze the characteristics of every layer cell in retina in information processing. The model is designed to achieve a kind of balance among hardware complexity, computing load and performance on the condition of sufficient information collection. This research also contributes to the design and implementation of artificial retina chips to improve perception of visually impaired patients.