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In this paper the Duffing oscillator is applied to solve high transmitter power consumption and high probability of intercept of underwater mine. A chaotic oscillator has the property of being sensitive to weak signal and being immune to noise, which leads to a potential application in weak signal detection. The weak signals can be used as the outside periodic exciter and be brought in the Duffing oscillator system. It appears that Duffing oscillator works very nicely in distance measurement of underwater mine. Some problems about determinant of chaotic nature are analyzed. We improve Duffing oscillator detection in ultrasonic distance measurement. The measurement is brought forward as a criterion to state of chaos. Duffing oscillator can't detect target because of phase deviation. The solve is also brought forward as to this problem by time varying. The detector of underwater mine active fuze is designed to measure distance. Simulation model, frame diagram and simulation result are given. The experiment results show this is a time-domain signal processing method which has a lower signal to noise ratio limit 20 dB. It will also be an effective method in ultrasonic distance measurement.