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In this study the thermal impact characteristics by forest fire are extensively investigated using temperature controlled ovens. The test conditions for thermal impact damage are simulated according to the characteristics of natural forest fire. The test pieces are suspension porcelain insulators made by KRI in 2005 for transmission lines. In the thermal impact cycle tests with 300degC thermal impact gradient (-70 to 230degC), cycling in 10 minute periods, no critical failures occurred in the test samples even with long cycle times. But in tests with thermal impact gradient from room temperature to 200-600degC, cycling in 10 to 30 minute periods, there were critical failures of the porcelain insulators according to the thermal impact gradient and quenching method. In the case of thermal impact by forest fire, it was found of that duration time is more important than the cycling time, and the initiation temperature of porcelain insulator failures is about 300degC, in the case of water quenching, many cracks and fracture of the porcelain occurred. It was found that the thermal impact failure is closely related to the displacement in the cement by thermal stress as confirmed by simulation. It was estimated that the initiation displacement by the thermal impact of 300degC is about 0.1%. Above 1% displacement, it is expected that the most porcelain insulators would fail.