By Topic

Carrier loop architectures for tracking weak GPS signals

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

3 Author(s)
Razavi, A. ; Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN ; Gebre-Egziabher, D. ; Akos, D.M.

The performance of various carrier recovery loop architectures (phase lock loop (PLL), Doppler-aided PLL, frequency lock loop (FLL), and Doppler-aided FLL) in tracking weak GPS signals are analyzed and experimentally validated. The effects of phase or frequency detector design, oscillator quality, coherent averaging time, and external Doppler aiding information on delaying loss of lock are quantified. It is shown that for PLLs the metric of total phase jitter is a reliable metric for assessing low C/N performance of the tracking loop provided the loop bandwidth is not too small (~> 5 Hz). For loop bandwidths that are not too small, total phase jitter accurately predicts carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) at which loss of lock occurs. This predicted C/N is very close to the C/N predicted by bit error rate (BER). However, unlike BER, total phase jitter can be computed in real-time and an estimator for it is developed and experimentally validated. Total phase jitter is not a replacement for BER, since at low bandwidths it is less accurate than BER in that the receiver loses lock at a higher C/N than predicted by the estimator. Similarly, for FLLs operating at small loop bandwidths, it is found that normalized total frequency jitter is not a reliable metric for assessing loss of lock in weak signal or low C/N conditions. At small loop bandwidths, while total frequency jitter may indicate that a loop is still tracking, the Doppler estimates provided by the FLL will be biased.

Published in:

Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 2 )