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Routing in multi-hop wireless networks involves the indirection from a persistent name (or ID) to a locator. Concepts such as coordinate space embedding help reduce the number and dynamism complexity of bindings and state needed for this indirection. Routing protocols which do not use such concepts often tend to flood packets during route discovery or dissemination, and hence have limited scalability. In this paper, we introduce Orthogonal Rendezvous Routing Protocol (ORRP) for meshed wireless networks. ORRP is a lightweight-but-scalable routing protocol utilizing directional communications (such as directional antennas or free-space-optical transceivers) to relax information requirements such as coordinate space embedding and node localization. The ORRP source and ORRP destination send route discovery and route dissemination packets respectively in locally-chosen orthogonal directions. Connectivity happens when these paths intersect (i.e., rendezvous). We show that ORRP achieves connectivity with high probability even in sparse networks with voids. ORRP scales well without imposing DHT-like graph structures (eg: trees, rings, torus etc). The total state information required is O(N3/2) for N-node networks, and the state is uniformly distributed. ORRP does not resort to flooding either in route discovery or dissemination. The price paid by ORRP is suboptimality in terms of path stretch compared to the shortest path; however we characterize the average penalty and find that it is not severe.
Date of Publication: April 2009