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Ultrasonic techniques based on measurements of apparent backscatter may provide a useful means for diagnosing bone diseases such as osteoporosis. The term "apparent" means that the backscattered signals are not compensated for the frequency-dependent effects of attenuation and diffraction. We performed in vitro apparent backscatter measurements on 23 specimens of human cancellous bone prepared from the left and right femoral heads of seven donors. A mechanical scanning system was used to obtain backscattered signals from each specimen at several sites. Scans were performed using five different ultrasonic transducers with center frequencies of 1, 2.25, 5, 7.5, and 10 MHz. The -6 dB bandwidths of these transducers covered a frequency range of 0.6-15.0 MHz. The backscattered signals were analyzed to determine three ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), and time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB). Linear regression analysis was used to examine the correlation of these ultrasonic parameters with five measured physical characteristics of the specimens: mass density, X-ray bone mineral density, Young's modulus, yield strength, and ultimate strength. A total of 75 such correlations were examined (3 ultrasonic parameters times 5 specimen characteristics times 5 transducers). Good correlations were observed for AIB using the 5 MHz (r = 0.70 - 0.89) and 7.5 MHz (r = 0.75-0.93) transducers; for FSAB using the 2.25 MHz (r = 0.70 - 0.88), 5 MHz (r = 0.79 - 0.94), and 7.5 MHz (r = 0.80 - 0.92) transducers; and for TSAB using the 5 MHz (r = 0.68 - 0.89), 7.5 MHz (r = 0.75 - 0.89), and 10 MHz (r = 0.75 - 0.92) transducers.
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:55 , Issue: 7 )
Date of Publication: July 2008