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This paper reviews theory, measurements, and computer simulations of scattering from cancellous bone reported by many laboratories. Three theoretical models (binary mixture, Faran cylinder, and weak scattering) for scattering from cancellous bone have demonstrated some consistency with measurements of backscatter. Backscatter is moderately correlated with bone mineral density in human calcaneus in vitro (r2 = 0.66 - 0.68). Backscatter varies approximately as frequency cubed and trabecular thickness cubed in human calcaneus and femur in vitro. Backscatter from human calcaneus and bovine tibia exhibits substantial anisotropy. So far, backscatter has demonstrated only modest clinical utility. Computer simulation models have helped to elucidate mechanisms underlying scattering from cancellous bones.