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Glimmer: Multilevel MDS on the GPU

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3 Author(s)
Ingram, S. ; Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ; Munzner, T. ; Olano, Marc

We present Glimmer, a new multilevel algorithm for multidimensional scaling designed to exploit modern graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware. We also present GPU-SF, a parallel, force-based subsystem used by Glimmer. Glimmer organizes input into a hierarchy of levels and recursively applies GPU-SF to combine and refine the levels. The multilevel nature of the algorithm makes local minima less likely while the GPU parallelism improves speed of computation. We propose a robust termination condition for GPU-SF based on a filtered approximation of the normalized stress function. We demonstrate the benefits of Glimmer in terms of speed, normalized stress, and visual quality against several previous algorithms for a range of synthetic and real benchmark datasets. We also show that the performance of Glimmer on GPUs is substantially faster than a CPU implementation of the same algorithm.

Published in:

Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:15 ,  Issue: 2 )