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What we propose is a framework, based on federated simulation and ABMS, which has the goal to support the correct modeling, understanding and quantification of complex critical systems interdependencies and behavior. The advantages of the proposed solution are: 1) the complex system is modeled using a bottom-up approach, form the single components to the whole system (ABMS capability); 2) specific sector simulation models can be reused (federated simulation capabilities); 3) large scale simulation is supported (federated simulation capabilities). Federated ABMS exploits the ABMS capabilities, to model the whole complex system as a set of interacting agents, and the federated simulation capabilities, to reuse existing models which will help in modeling agents behavior at different level of abstraction. ABMS is used to provide an high level model of the system, representing the infrastructures, the active entities and the environment as interacting agents. The behavior of each agent is modeled by using existing sector specific simulation models.