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Data are presented on preparation methods, properties, and main application fields of semiconductor chalcogenide scintillators (CS) on the basis of zinc selenide and other AIIBVI compounds. Peculiar features and mechanisms of the CS luminescence are discussed. CS luminescence spectra maximums are located within the range 590-640 nm, depending on the method of preparing the scintillator. The luminescence decay time ranges within 0.5-3 and 30-50 mus. The afterglow level is less than 0.001-0.01% after 5-20 ms, and the radiation stability is ges 5 times 108 rad. Certain application fields of the new CS are examined taking into account their particular properties.