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This paper presents the design of a monocular vision based particle filter localization system for urban settings that uses aerial orthoimagery as the reference map. One of the design objectives is to provide a low cost method for outdoor localization using a single camera. This relaxes the need for global positioning system (GPS) which may experience degraded reliability in urban settings. The second objective is to study the achievable localization performance with the aforementioned resources. Image processing techniques are employed to create a feature map from an aerial image, and also to extract features from camera images to provide observations that are used by a particle filter for localization.