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We propose a method for recursive segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) across a temporal sequence of magnetic resonance (MR) images. The approach involves a technique for learning the LV boundary dynamics together with a particle-based inference algorithm on a loopy graphical model capturing the temporal periodicity of the heart. The dynamic system state is a low-dimensional representation of the boundary, and boundary estimation involves incorporating curve evolution into state estimation. By formulating the problem as one of state estimation, the segmentation at each particular time is based not only on the data observed at that instant, but also on predictions based on past and future boundary estimates. We assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework on a large data set of breath-hold cardiac MR image sequences.