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The primary focus of this paper is the enhancement of the computational efficiency of the on-surface discretized boundary equation (OS-DBE) method with a view of making it practical for solving large body problems. A possible way to achieve efficiency improvement is to combine the OS-DBE method with the fast multipole method (OS-DBE-FMM). The problem of the two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering by perfect electric conducting cylinders is considered. The computational complexity for the solution of matrix equations in the present OS-DBE-FMM can be reduced to 0(7V15) in comparison to that in the existing OS-DBE algorithm.