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Electronic visual prostheses have demonstrated the ability to restore a rudimentary sense of vision to blind individuals. This review paper will highlight past and recent progress in this field as well as some technical challenges to further advancement. Retinal implants have now been tested in humans by four independent groups. Optic nerve and cortical implants have been also been evaluated in humans. The first implants have achieved remarkable results, including detection of motion and distinguishing objects from a set. To improve on these results, a number of research groups have performed simulations that predict up to 1000 individual pixels may be needed to restore significant functions such as face recognition and reading. In order to achieve a device that can stimulate the visual system in this many locations, issues of power consumption and electronic packaging must be resolved.