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Simple analytical formulas are introduced for the grid impedance of electrically dense arrays of square patches and for the surface impedance of high-impedance surfaces based on the dense arrays of metal strips or square patches over ground planes. Emphasis is on the oblique-incidence excitation. The approach is based on the known analytical models for strip grids combined with the approximate Babinet principle for planar grids located at a dielectric interface. Analytical expressions for the surface impedance and reflection coefficient resulting from our analysis are thoroughly verified by full-wave simulations and compared with available data in open literature for particular cases. The results can be used in the design of various antennas and microwave or millimeter wave devices which use artificial impedance surfaces and artificial magnetic conductors (reflect-array antennas, tunable phase shifters, etc.), as well as for the derivation of accurate higher-order impedance boundary conditions for artificial (high-) impedance surfaces. As an example, the propagation properties of surface waves along the high-impedance surfaces are studied.
Date of Publication: June 2008