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A novel approach is developed to design linear passive retro-directive antenna arrays by properly making use of 90deg hybrids. For a 90deg hybrid, when its direct port and coupled port are terminated with the same reflection coefficient, the phase difference of the reflected signals at the other two ports are reversed to that of the incident signals. This then becomes to be a phase difference reversal circuit (or a retro-directive circuit) and leads to the design of linear retro-directive antenna arrays using 90deg hybrids. The formulas and a folding method on designing linear retro-directive array circuits with arbitrary element numbers are presented with the measurement results of three-element, four-element, and six-element retro-directive antenna arrays.
Date of Publication: June 2008