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This paper describes optical signal processing based on optical phase modulation and subsequent optical filtering, which is applicable to 160-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) subsystems. Ultrafast phase modulation of an optical signal is done by self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) when an optical pulse passes through a nonlinear optical fiber. Such phase modulation induces the spectral shift of the optical signal. Various types of optical signal processing are realized simply by filtering out the spectral-shifted component. Using SPM-based pulse reshaping in a 500-m-long silica-based highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), we demonstrate highly stable generation of a 10-GHz 2-ps optical pulse train tunable over the entire C band. A phase-locked loop (PLL) can suppress the slow phase drift of the output pulse train induced by fluctuations of the nonlinear fiber length, enabling the application of the pulse generator to a 160-Gb/s OTDM transmitter. Based on XPM in a 2-m-long photonic crystal fiber, optical time-division demultiplexing of 160-Gb/s optical signals is demonstrated. The long-term stability is drastically improved as compared with the device composed of a conventional silica-based HNLF, because the short fiber length reduces the phase fluctuation between the signal and control pulses. Instead of nonlinear fibers, an electrooptic modulator such as a (LN) modulator also performs the phase modulation in a more practical manner. We propose and demonstrate an optoelectronic time-division demultiplexing scheme for a 160-Gb/s OTDM signal, which consists of an LN phase modulator driven by a 40-GHz electrical clock and an optical bandpass filter (BPF). We also demonstrate base-clock recovery from a 160-Gb/s optical signal with an optoelectronic PLL. The phase comparator is simply composed of an LN phase modulator and an optical BPF, ensuring the stable and reliable operation in the 160-Gb/s receiver.