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This paper describes the RTGrid distributed simulation framework for conformal radiotherapy. We introduce novel approaches through which several distributed computing technologies are made accessible to Monte Carlo simulations for radiotherapy dose calculations. Currently, radiotherapy treatment planning is typically performed on PCs and workstations which lack the computational power to run Monte Carlo simulations quickly enough to be useful to clinicians. Therefore, although Monte Carlo simulation techniques offer highly accurate doses, they are seldom chosen for clinical deployment. The RTGrid project is investigating both the capability and capacity modes of exploiting grid computing for radiotherapy treatment planning using Monte Carlo simulations.