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The tests of the compressive mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cup material were carried out under the simulating human body temperatures and the variable loads in human natural walking cycle. Compared with the values at the room temperature 22degC, the yield stresses of UHMWPE at human body temperatures 37degC and 40degC decreased by 23.1% and 31.9%, respectively. And higher temperature caused larger compression strain and lesser deformation recovery. It can be concluded that human body temperature may accelerate the failure of UHMWPE prosthesis and that the strong influence of human body temperature on the mechanical properties of UHMWPE should be considered. The experimental study provides some basic data and references for UHMWPE prosthesis used in human body.