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A new indicator of sustainable development to water resources system was brought forward. Considering influencing factors of resilience, a quantitative assessment index system of water resources system was established. The mean squared deviation method is used to calculated index weighting coefficient. A new concept of resilience degree of water resources system can be proposed and calculated using an integrated assessment method. Sustainable development situation of water resources system can be judged according to the size of resilience degree. The resilience of water resources has been evaluated using the established index system and assessment method to 11 districts of Shanxi province in 2004. At the same time the resilience degrees to 11 districts are calculated. The assessment results demonstrate that the resilience degree of water resources system to Shanxi province is low commonly. The results show that 81.8%'s district belongs to feeble area of water resources system resilience and sustainable development. 18.2%'s district belongs to common area of water resources system resilience and sustainable development. This situation is harmful to water resources system sustainable development of Shanxi province. The assessment results show that the resilience of water resources system of Shanxi province is descending from east to west and from south to north. The conclusions are basically consistent with space distribution rule of the annual amount of precipitation. The conclusions will provide the theory basis for sustainable development study and water resources planning in Shanxi province.