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After the application of aeration devices using solar energy in a polluted urban river for about one year, DO (dissolved oxygen) concentrations increased from 2.3 mg/L to 5.2 mg/L. Aeration accelerated the decomposition of pollutants and resulted in a removal rate of 52% COD (chemical oxygen demand), 54% NH3-N, 44% TN (total nitrogen) and 28% TP (total phosphorous) from the river. It was evident that solar aeration devices played a significant role on purifying pollutants especially organic matters and NH3-N in seriously polluted rivers with low velocity. Also, aeration had control algae bloom by decreasing nutrients amount and improving water exchange ability.