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This paper presents a comparative study of several passivity enforcement schemes for linear lumped macromodels. We consider three main classes of algorithms. First class is represented by those methods based on a direct enforcement of positive/bounded real lemma constraints via convex optimization. Second class includes those algorithms that enforce the passivity constraints at discrete frequency samples. These schemes are here formulated as second-order cone programs in order to optimize performance. Finally, we consider algorithms based on Hamiltonian eigenvalue perturbation. These three classes are applied to a significant set of benchmark examples, essentially various kinds of high-speed interconnects and packages, with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of accuracy, efficiency, applicability, and robustness. These examples are specifically selected in order to be critical for one or more algorithms, in terms of excessive accuracy degradation, computational complexity, or even lack of convergence. One important result is that carefully designed weighting schemes may dramatically improve performance for all considered algorithm classes.
Date of Publication: Nov. 2008