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Label-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization detection using carbon nanotube transistor (CNT) arrays is demonstrated. The present scheme is distinguished from other CNT sensing methods as it uses a gate oxide overlayer on top of the carbon nanotubes, which function solely as charge sensors but are not participants in the chemical binding process. Because it involves DNA probe attachment on the gate oxide rather than on the CNT, this approach allows the use of conventional DNA functionalization and bioassay protocols, and is less prone to false positives. The signal sought is a few tens of millivolts in threshold voltage shift due to the increase of surface charges after target hybridization. The hybridization detection is shown to be highly specific and sensitive to a minimum concentration of about 30 nM of 61-mer DNA. Despite differences in the transistor properties due to the spread in the CNT parameters during fabrication, the yields are very high and the sensing characteristics are uniformly consistent in nearly all transistors.