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Particle concentration and separation in ultrasonic standing waves through the action of the acoustic radiation force on suspended particles are discussed. The acoustic radiation force is a function of the density and compressibility of the fluid and the suspended particles. A two-dimensional theoretical model is developed for particle trajectory calculations. An electroacoustic model is used to predict the acoustic field in a resonator, driven by a piezoelectric transducer. Second, the results of the linear acoustic model are used to calculate the acoustic radiation force acting on a particle suspended in the resonator. Third, a particle trajectory model is developed that integrates the equation of motion of a particle subjected to a buoyancy force, a fluid drag force, and the acoustic radiation force. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are performed to calculate the velocity field that is subsequently used to calculate fluid drag. For a fixed frequency excitation, the particles are concentrated along the stable node locations of the acoustic radiation force. Through a periodic sweeping of the excitation frequency particle translation is achieved. Two types of frequency sweeps are considered, a ramp approach and a step-change method. Numerical results of particle trajectory calculations are presented for two configurations of flow-through resonators and for two types of frequency sweeping. It is shown that most effective particle separation occurs when the fluid drag force is orthogonal to the acoustic radiation force.