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The Effect of Frequency Sweeping and Fluid Flow on Particle Trajectories in Ultrasonic Standing Waves

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3 Author(s)
Lipkens, Bart ; Dept. of Mech. Eng., Western New England Coll., Springfield, MA ; Costolo, M. ; Rietman, E.

Particle concentration and separation in ultrasonic standing waves through the action of the acoustic radiation force on suspended particles are discussed. The acoustic radiation force is a function of the density and compressibility of the fluid and the suspended particles. A two-dimensional theoretical model is developed for particle trajectory calculations. An electroacoustic model is used to predict the acoustic field in a resonator, driven by a piezoelectric transducer. Second, the results of the linear acoustic model are used to calculate the acoustic radiation force acting on a particle suspended in the resonator. Third, a particle trajectory model is developed that integrates the equation of motion of a particle subjected to a buoyancy force, a fluid drag force, and the acoustic radiation force. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are performed to calculate the velocity field that is subsequently used to calculate fluid drag. For a fixed frequency excitation, the particles are concentrated along the stable node locations of the acoustic radiation force. Through a periodic sweeping of the excitation frequency particle translation is achieved. Two types of frequency sweeps are considered, a ramp approach and a step-change method. Numerical results of particle trajectory calculations are presented for two configurations of flow-through resonators and for two types of frequency sweeping. It is shown that most effective particle separation occurs when the fluid drag force is orthogonal to the acoustic radiation force.

Published in:

Sensors Journal, IEEE  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 6 )

Date of Publication:

June 2008

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