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An analytical model is developed for a two-layer repulsive-force out-of-plane micro electrostatic actuator by using conformal mapping techniques. The model provides the means to establish the performance characteristics in terms of stroke and generated force of the actuator and is used to develop design and optimization rules for the actuator. Numerical simulations were conducted in order to verify the analytical model. A simple physical model is also presented that explains the mechanism for generating the repulsive force. A Multi-User-MEMS-Processes repulsive-force out-of-plane rotation micromirror is developed to experimentally verify the analytical model and to demonstrate the repulsive-force actuator's capability of driving large-size rotation plates by using surface micromachining technology. Experimental measurements show that the repulsive-force rotation micromirror with a size of 312 mum times 312 mum achieved a mechanical rotation of 0deg-2.1deg at a dc driving voltage of 0-200 V. The micromirror achieved an open-loop settling time of 2.9 ms for a mechanical rotation of 2.3deg and an open-loop bandwidth of 150 Hz (-3 dB).