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The main results of recent experimental research on the different plasma sources for high-current electron beam generation are presented. Namely, passive plasma sources (velvet-based and multicapillary dielectric cathodes) based on flashover plasma and active plasma sources based on a ferroelectric plasma source (FPS) and an FPS-assisted hollow-anode plasma source are described. Different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, and spectroscopic diagnostics used in these experiments were applied for the characterization of the plasma source parameters. The main data concerning the plasma parameters (plasma density and temperature, plasma uniformity, and plasma potential) and the main features of these plasma sources (plasma formation, lifetime, and vacuum compatibility) are considered. Also, data concerning electron diode operation and the parameters of the generated electron beam while using these plasma sources are presented.