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Kraftwerk2—A Fast Force-Directed Quadratic Placement Approach Using an Accurate Net Model

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3 Author(s)
Peter Spindler ; Inst. for Electron. Design Autom., Tech. Univ. Munchen, Munich ; Ulf Schlichtmann ; Frank M. Johannes

The force-directed quadratic placer ldquoKraftwerk2,rdquo as described in this paper, is based on two main concepts. First, the force that is necessary to distribute the modules on the chip is separated into the following two components: a hold force and a move force. Both components are implemented in a systematic manner. Consequently, Kraftwerk2 converges such that the module overlap is reduced in each placement iteration. The second concept of Kraftwerk2 is to use the ldquoBound2Boundrdquo net model, which accurately represents the half-perimeter wirelength (HPWL) in the quadratic cost function. Aside from these features, this paper presents additional details about Kraftwerk2. An approach to remove halos (free space) around large modules is described, and a method to control the module density is presented. In order to choose the important tradeoff between runtime and quality, a systematic quality control is shown. Furthermore, plots demonstrating the convergence of Kraftwerk2 are presented. Results using various benchmark suites demonstrate that Kraftwerk2 offers both high quality and excellent computational efficiency.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems  (Volume:27 ,  Issue: 8 )