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This paper presents a new scheme of joint equalization and interference cancellation by single carrier frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) for Alamouti-like space-time block-coded (STBC) transmissions in distributed cooperative diversity networks with frequency-selective fading channels. The communication process in this scheme followed that the source terminal adopted broadcasting mode to communicate with the relay terminals and the destination terminals during the first and third time slots. The destination terminals implemented maximum ratio combining (MRC) after performing SC-FDE. Exploiting the broadcasting mode can obtain more mutual information than non-broadcasting mode. MRC operation can make full use of all the transmitted information from the source terminals and the relay terminals to obtain more diversity gains. With one source equipped with a single relay, the proposed scheme was verified could obtain significant diversity gains and better BER performance than the existing cooperative diversity communication which combines the Alamouti-like STBC and SC-FDE via simulations.