Skip to Main Content
Wave digital filters (WDFs) were originally developed for robust discrete-time simulation of analog filters, but recently they have been applied successfully to modeling of physical systems such as musical instruments and to model-based sound synthesis. While basic WDF elements are sufficient to implement arbitrary passive lumped-element models, the computational efficiency of such models is not optimal. In this paper, we explore methods to realize consolidated impedance or admittance wave ports that are compatible to WDFs and digital waveguides. In addition to efficiency, attention is paid to simplicity of parametric control. A modeling and sound synthesis case study of the bell is presented to demonstrate the performance obtained by the consolidated approach.