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We consider the problem of quickest detection of an intrusion using a sensor network, keeping only a minimal number of sensors active. By using a minimal number of sensor devices, we ensure that the energy expenditure for sensing, computation and communication is minimized (and the lifetime of the network is maximized). We model the intrusion detection (or change detection) problem as a Markov decision process (MDP). Based on the theory of MDP, we develop the following closed loop sleep/wake scheduling algorithms: (1) optimal control of Mk+1, the number of sensors in the wake state in time slot k + 1, (2) optimal control of qk+1, the probability of a sensor in the wake state in time slot k + 1, and an open loop sleep/wake scheduling algorithm which (3) computes q, the optimal probability of a sensor in the wake state (which does not vary with time), based on the sensor observations obtained until time slot k. Our results show that an optimum closed loop control on Mk+1 significantly decreases the cost compared to keeping any number of sensors active all the time. Also, among the three algorithms described, we observe that the total cost is minimum for the optimum control on Mk+1 and is maximum for the optimum open loop control on q.
Date of Conference: 13-18 April 2008