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A high-performance ac motor control has been developed by employing the vector control concept. Its versatility has been proven through the six years of experience in applications to pinch roll drives of continuous casting plants, machine tool spindle drives, and other drive systems in industry. Equivalent torque characteristics are achieved with ac motors compared to dc motors without direct detection of the magnetic flux. The effect of rotor temperature on the torque characteristics has been compensated to a satisfactory level in actual industrial use by various means. Servo drives, both synchronous motor and induction motor types, have been introduced. The test results show that the performance of ac servo drives is equivalent or superior to that of the PWM-controlled dc servo drives. Furthermore, an example of the direct-drive servo is described, where an ultra-low speed high-torque motor and an ultra-high resolution position sensor play key roles. In addition, the possibility of a more sophisticated servo drive exploiting modern control theory is suggested.