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The fundamental problem of inertial navigation, double integration of acceleration to obtain position, is defined and discussed. Mechanizations of both space-stable and local-vertical platform systems are exhibited. The synthesis problem for an electrically suspended gyro (ESG) strapdown system is defined and discussed: readout, readout errors due to vehicle motion, synchronization of readout with system computer, alignment, correction and calibration for mass unbalance drift, and digital mechanization. Alignment, calibration, and acceleration measurement are also discussed. Sources of error involved in the electronic gimbaling including those peculiar to strapdown configuration are discussed and compared to mechanically gimbaled systems. Advanced developments required in the component and systems areas are listed, and it is shown that such development will lead to reduced complexity, higher accuracy, and increased reliability and utility for inertial systems.