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Although there are three studies that involve Emu-Pim1 transgenic female mice and GSM-900 RF fields, they may be characterized at best as attempts to confirm or refute, rather than replicate, the first study. The exposure systems and protocols were different. Mice were free-roaming, not restrained, in a plane-wave exposure field for the initial study, but the latter studies used restrained animals in plastic tubes placed in radial waveguides for exposure. The tumor incidence varied among all three studies. Cage-control data was available only from the latest study, which exhibited a tumor incidence of 52%. The reported incidence of lymphomas in the sham controls ranged from 22% to 74% in these studies. Clearly, the incidence of lymphomas among the sham controls varied widely. Moreover, the restraining and sham exposure of mice were supposedly the same for the two radial-waveguide studies, but they presented totally different rates of tumor incidence, thus rendering a realistic comparison between and among these studies difficult, if not impossible. These flaws - possibly in the sourcing or handling of mice, or in the fundamental design of the experiments - limit the conclusions that can be drawn.