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This paper presents an innovative mobile robot navigation technique using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Navigation based on processing some analog features of an RFID signal is a promising alternative to different types of navigation methods in the state of the art. The main idea is to exploit the ability of a mobile robot to navigate a priori unknown environments without a vision system and without building an approximate map of the robot workspace, as is the case in most other navigation algorithms. This paper discusses how this is achieved by placing RFID tags in the 3-D space so that the lines linking their projections on the ground define the ldquofree waysrdquo along which the robot can (or is desired to) move. The suggested algorithm is capable of reaching a target point in its a priori unknown workspace, as well as tracking a desired trajectory with a high precision. The proposed solution offers a modular, computationally efficient, and cost-effective alternative to other navigation techniques for a large number of mobile robot applications, particularly for service robots, such as, for instance, in large offices and assembly lines. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated through a number of computer simulations considering testbeds of various complexities.