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Communication is a primary source of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. Due to resource constraints, the sensor nodes may not have enough energy to report every reading to the base station over a required network lifetime. This paper investigates data collection strategies in lifetime-constrained wireless sensor networks. Our objective is to maximize the accuracy of data collected by the base station over the network lifetime. Instead of sending sensor readings periodically, the relative importance of the readings is considered in data collection: the sensor nodes send data updates to the base station when the new readings differ more substantially from the previous ones. We analyze the optimal update strategy and develop adaptive update strategies for both individual and aggregate data collections. We also present two methods to cope with message losses in wireless transmission. To make full use of the energy budgets, we design an algorithm to allocate the numbers of updates allowed to be sent by the sensor nodes based on their topological relations. Experimental results using real data traces show that, compared with the periodic strategy, adaptive strategies significantly improve the accuracy of data collected by the base station.
Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:19 , Issue: 6 )
Date of Publication: June 2008