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The main contribution of this paper is a novel fault detection strategy, which is able to cope with changing system states at on-line measurement systems fully automatically. For doing so, an improved fault detection logic is introduced which is based on data-driven evolving fuzzy models. These are sample-wise trained from online measurement data, i.e. the structure and rules of the models evolve over time in order to cope 1.) with high-frequented measurement recordings and 2.) online changing operating conditions. The evolving fuzzy models represent (changing) non-linear dependencies between certain system variables and are used for calculating the deviation between expected model outputs and real measured values on new incoming data samples (rarr residuals). The residuals are compared with local confidence regions surrounding the evolving fuzzy models, so-called local error bars, incrementally calculated synchronously to the models. The behavior of the residuals is analyzed over time by an adaptive univariate statistical approach. Evaluation results based on high-dimensional measurement data from engine test benches are demonstrated at the end of the paper, where the novel fault detection approach is compared against static analytical (fault) models.