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Individuals with C5/C6 spinal cord injury (SCI) have a number of paralyzed muscles in their upper extremities that can be electrically activated in a coordinated manner to restore function. The selection of a practical subset of paralyzed muscles for stimulation depends on the specific condition of the individual, the functions targeted for restoration, and surgical considerations. This paper presents a musculoskeletal model-based approach for optimizing the muscle set used for functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the shoulder and elbow in this population. Experimentally recorded kinematics from able-bodied subjects served as inputs to a musculoskeletal model of the shoulder and elbow, which was modified to reflect the reduced muscle force capacities of an individual with C5 SCI but also the potential of using FES to activate paralyzed muscles. A large number of inverse dynamic simulations mimicking typical activities of daily living were performed that included (1) muscles with retained voluntary control and (2) many different combinations of stimulated paralyzed muscles. These results indicate that a muscle set consisting of the serratus anterior, infraspinatus and triceps would enable the greatest range of relevant movements. This set will become the initial target in a C5SCI neuroprosthesis to restore shoulder and elbow function.