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This paper presents the results and subsequent analysis of full-scale excavation experiments aimed at developing a practical understanding of how actuator forces evolve during excavation and how they relate to the interactions that occur between an excavator's end-effector and its environment. Our focus is on the excavation problem for fragmented rock, as is common in mining and construction applications. Based on an analysis of the experimental data, an example admittance-type autonomous excavation controller is postulated.
Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:5 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: July 2008