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Defects chemistry plays an important role in the origin of p-type conductivity in transparent CuAlO2 thin films. CuAlO2 thin film was deposited at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering on glass and silicon substrates. Films were deposited with various O2 partial pressures in the Ar+O2 atmosphere. UV-Vis spectrophotometric measurement indicated the films were having transparency above 75% in the visible region and the tauc gap was 1.6 eV. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the film was 0.32 S cm-1.