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This review covers a range of topics related to lower-extremity prostheses (LEP) and wheelchair technology and service provision. A description on how recent advances in LEP technology for low-income countries have come about through research and field studies is presented and a discussion on the required technical advances and associated research that would increase LEP production capacity is given. The paper also discusses several approaches used for designing, manufacturing, and providing WCs to and in low-income countries; there is also a discussion on past research and highlight current efforts to build research capacity in the field. Last, the paper includes an in-depth description of the social, societal, economic, and physical constraints in India to demonstrate the difficulties in successfully applying this technology.