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Modeling for temperature compensation and temperature characterizations of BAW resonators at GHz frequencies

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6 Author(s)
Ivira, B. ; Inst. of Microelectron., Electromagn. & Photonics, Grenoble ; Benech, P. ; Fillit, R. ; Ndagijimana, F.
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This paper deals with the temperature dependence of electrical and physical features of various kinds of solidly mounted resonators (SMR). The presented bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices are designed for the 2 GHz application. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) is determined from measurements well above the temperature range defined for wireless telecommunication system specifications. Therefore, evolution of electromechanical coupling factors and quality factors at resonance and antiresonance are also monitored. Results of characterizations show the trend for a subsequent theoretical temperature compensation study by using analytical modeling. To improve accuracy of modeling, an attempt to extract temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity e33 and piezoelectric coefficient e33 is made. Finally, a well-known analytical model is modified to take into account the temperature dependence of length, density, stiffness coefficient, dielectric permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficient. Modeling highlights the need to deposit a material with positive temperature coefficient of stiffness on the top electrode. Realistic thickness of such a layer is determined. At the same time, it is necessary to adjust piezoelectric and electrode thin film thicknesses for simultaneously keeping a constant antiresonance frequency, reaching a zero temperature coefficient of frequency for antiresonance, and minimizing the decrease in the coupling factor because of the mass-loading deposition.

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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:55 ,  Issue: 2 )