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This paper presents models for finite-element analyses and design of linear permanent-magnet motors (LPMMs) with surface-mounted or interior-buried permanent magnets (PMs). Several different models are studied in order to compare and discuss different LPMM structures. Using an analytical model of LPMMs, equations for thrust are derived. Then, we used 2-D finite-element analysis to illustrate the performance variation of LPMMs caused by the variation of structure parameters. Computer simulation results show that the characteristics and dimensions of the PMs, the shapes and dimensions of the armature, and the exciting current all have significant effects on motor performance. Several design examples based on the effects of these parameters demonstrate the design of the LPMMs. The design consideration presented in this paper can be used to determine preliminary LPMM mechanical structures before hardware implementation.