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N42.41-2007  -  American National Standard Minimum Performance Criteria for Active Interrogation Systems Used for Homeland Security

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The performance criteria for active interrogation systems in homeland security applications are described in this standard. These systems are intended for non-intrusive inspection of closed containers, vehicles, and packages of a wide range of types and sizes. In these systems, the contents of an inspection zone are irradiated with penetrating ionizing radiation to determine the presence of a hidden substance-of-interest by the analysis of stimulated secondary radiations or nuclear-resonance absorption spectra that are indicative of the chemical and/or nuclidic composition of the substance-of-interest.

Scope
This standard specifies the operational and performance requirements for active interrogation systems foruse in homeland security applications. These systems employ penetrating ionizing radiation (e.g., neutrons,high-energy x-rays, gamma-rays) to detect and identify hidden chemical, nuclear, and explosive agents bydetection of stimulated secondary radiations or by nuclear resonance contrast, giving elemental and/ornuclidic identification of the composition of the substances-of-interest. These inspection systems may bedesigned for open inspection zones of various sizes or for various sizes of containers such as smallpackages, briefcases, suitcases, air cargo containers, passenger vehicles, two-axle trucks, intermodal cargocontainers, semi-trailers/tractor rigs, or rail cars. The systems may be designed for operation in indoor,outdoor, or mobile facilities.At the time of this writing, there are only a few commercially available active interrogation systems, andmost of these are still in a stage of rapid development. None are yet deployed on a very broad scale, eitherdomestically or internationally. The requirements of this standard provide a set of minimally acceptableperformance criteria for preliminary screening of candidate systems for further consideration. Prior todeployment on a broad scale, more detailed and realistic testing beyond the scope of this standard should becarried out, with some test specifications outside of the public domain. Detectable amounts of substances inthis standard may correspond to quantities that are larger or smaller than those of significance in particularcircumstances. Successful completion of the tests described in this standard should not be construed ascertification of an ability to successfully detect and identify all chemical, nuclear, and explosive agents inall possible cargos, nor as a certification that false positive rates in actual stream-of-commerce applicationswill be no larger than in these tests.This standard does not - onsider radiographic imaging characteristics. However, if active interrogationfeatures that provide chemical or nuclidic identification of substances are included in a system that isprimarily intended for radiography, then the active interrogation features of the system may be tested andevaluated under this standard.
Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to specify the minimum performance criteria for active interrogationsystems to be considered for use in homeland security applications.