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A passive optical network (PON) architecture based on a hybrid wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM) PON system with a remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is presented as an excellent candidate for use in a next-generation optical access network. The remotely pumped EDFA operates as a bidirectional amplifier and provides a 15-dB gain to both upstream signals and seed light sources, so the sensitivity of upstream transmission is greatly improved. An upstream transmission of 1.25 Gb/s with a low seed channel power of -14 dBm is made feasible over a total reach of 25 km for 32-WDM channels and 16-TDM splits by the use of the remotely pumped EDFA. This scheme has advantages that it uses a single transmission fiber for both down-and up-stream signals and that it reduces the Rayleigh scattering contribution.