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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment option for various types of invasive tumors. The efficacy of PDT treatment depends strongly on selective cell uptake and selective excitation of the tumor. The characterization of fluorescence lifetimes of photosensitizers localized inside living cells may provide the basis for further investigation of in vivo PDT dosage measurements using time-domain spectroscopy and imaging. In this communication, we investigated the fluorescence lifetime of localized Photofrin and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in living MAT-LyLu (MLL) rat prostate adenocarcinoma cells. The MLL cells were incubated with the photosensitizers, and then treated with light under well-oxygenated conditions using a two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM). Fluorescence lifetime images of these cells were recorded with average lifetimes of 5.5 plusmn 1.2 ns for Photofrin and 6.3 plusmn 1.2 ns for ALA-induced PpIX. When localized in cells, the lifetimes of both photosensitizers were found to be significantly shorter than those measured in organic solutions. The result for PpIX is consistent with literature values, while the lifetime of Photofrin is shorter than what has been reported. These results suggest that time-domain methods measuring photosensitizer lifetime changes may be good candidates for in vivo PDT dosage monitoring.