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The variable-structure multiple-model particle filtering approach for state estimation of road-constrained targets is addressed. The multiple models are designed to account for target maneuvers including "move-stop-move" and motion ambiguity at an intersection; the time-varying active model sets are adaptively selected based on target state and local terrain condition. The hybrid state space is partitioned into the mode subspace and the target subspace. The mode state is estimated based on random sampling; the target state as well as the relevant likelihood function associated with a mode sample sequence is approximated as Gaussian distribution, of which the conditional mean and covariance are deterministically computed using a nonlinear Kalman filter which accounts for road constraints in its update. The importance function for the sampling of the mode state approximates the optimal importance function under the same Gaussian assumption of the target state.