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Information systems (IS) researchers have demonstrated that usage is a key variable in explaining the performance impact of information technology. However, existing technology-mediated learning (TML) studies have not examined the influence of usage on learning outcome and the factors that determine the usage of TML. To address this research gap, our study presents and tests a TML model by drawing insights from two research streams. First, following the IS literature, we incorporate the impact of technology usage on individual performance. Second, building on the social cognitive theory, we study the influences of self-efficacy beliefs (system and subject domain) and affective responses (affect and anxiety) on technology usage. Based on 503 matched responses collected using two-stage questionnaire surveys, our analyses confirm the significance of usage in mediating the effects of system self-efficacy and anxiety on perceived learning outcome, but not in mediating the effects of affect and subject-domain self-efficacy. We find strong support for the influences of self-efficacy beliefs on affective responses. Self-efficacy beliefs of the users are also observed to change over time and perceived learning outcome plays a significant role in explaining this change. Our research enhances the existing TML theory by producing useful insights regarding the influence of social cognitive factors of learners on the usage of TML and how usage mediates the influence of these variables on perceived learning outcome.