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For the congestion problems in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks, a hybrid intelligent controller based on simulated annealing (SA) and reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is proposed. The SA algorithm is a powerful way to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems, which is used to adjust the parameters of the controller. The RL algorithm shows the particular superiority in ATM networks, which is independent of the mathematic model and just needs simple fuzzy information obtained through trial-and-error and interaction with the environment. With the advantages of the two algorithms, the proposed controller forces the queue size in the multiplexer buffer to the desired value by adjusting the source transmission rate of the available bit rate (ABR) service. Simulation results show that the proposed method can promote the performance of the networks and avoid the occurrence of congestion effectively.