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Fabrication and characterization of annular thickness mode piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducers

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4 Author(s)
Dorey, R.A. ; Cranfield Univ., Cranfield ; Dauchy, F. ; Dazhi Wang ; Berriet, R.

Micromachining techniques, in combination with low temperature ceramic composite sol-gel processing, have been used to fabricate annular array thickness-mode piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducers (Tm-pMUTs). The processing techniques of low temperature (710degC) composite sol-gel ceramic (sol + ceramic powder) deposition and wet etching were used to deposit and structure 27-mum-thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films on silicon substrates to produce annular array Tm-pMUTs. Using these techniques, high quality PZT materials with near bulk permittivity have been obtained. The Tm-pMUT devices were shown to resonate at approximately 60 MHz in air and 50 MHz in water. From resonance measurements fct values ranging between 0.2 and 0.47 have been calculated and shown to depend on the level of porosity within the film. Lower values of kt were observed for films with higher levels of porosity, which was attributed to the relative decrease in the effective piezoelectric coefficient e33 with respect to stiffness and permittivity as a function of increasing porosity. This paper presents the successful micro-fabrication of a Tm-pMUT device and discusses the optimization of the poling conditions and effect of PZT microstructure on the coupling coefficient kt. Pulse echo measurements in water, showing a -6 dB center frequency of 53 MHz and 47% -6 dB bandwidth, using a target 15 mm away from the transducer, have been included to demonstrate successful operation of the device. Full analysis of these results will be conducted in later publications.

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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:54 ,  Issue: 12 )