Skip to Main Content
We present AC-DC transfer standard measurements using the National Institute of Standards and Technology's pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage standard source. We have investigated the frequency dependence for several output voltages up to 200 mV for frequencies from 2.5 to 100 kHz. We found that, as the frequency increases, the ac-dc differences for the two arrays on the same chip do not agree. We explored this deviation in ac-dc difference for the two arrays by investigating different configurations of the probe cabling and wiring, chip carriers, and on-chip circuit design. We found that the circuit design produced the greatest improvement, particularly at the highest frequency (100 kHz), where the deviation in ac-dc difference was reduced by more than 60%. In this paper, we also demonstrate tenfold higher output voltages and improved operating margins for arbitrary (nonsinusoidal) waveforms. These enhancements were accomplished by implementing a more general current bias to the arrays having the same harmonic content as that of the synthesized arbitrary waveform.